Abstract Post exertional muscle fatigue is a key feature in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). Abnormalities of skeletal muscle function have been identified in some but not all patients with CFS. To try to limit potential confounders that might contribute to this clinical heterogeneity, we developed a novel in vitro system that allows comparison of AMP…
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is an illness characterized by unexplained and prolonged fatigue that is often accompanied by abnormalities of immune, endocrine and cognitive functions. Diminished natural killer cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) is a frequently reported finding. However, the molecular basis of this defect of in vitro cytotoxicy has not been described. Perforin is a protein found within intracellular granules of NK and cytotoxic T cells and is a key factor in the lytic processes mediated by these cells. Quantitative fluorescence flow cytometry was used to the intracellular perforin content in CFS subjects and healthy controls. A significant reduction in the NK cell associated perforin levels in samples from CFS patients, compared to healthy controls, was observed. There was also an indication of a reduced perforin level within the cytotoxic T cells of CFS subjects, providing the first evidence, to our knowledge, to suggest a T cell associated cytotoxic deficit in CFS. Because perforin is important in immune surveillance and homeostasis of the immune system, its deficiency may prove to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of CFS and its analysis may prove useful as a biomarker in the study of CFS.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has long been discussed as a possible cause or trigger of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). In a subset of patients the disease starts with infectious mononucleosis and both enhanced and diminished EBV-specific antibody titers have been reported. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the EBV-specific memory B- and T-cell response in patients with CFS. While we observed no difference in viral capsid antigen (VCA)-IgG antibodies, EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA)-IgG titers were low or absent in 10% of CFS patients. Remarkably, when analyzing the EBV-specific memory B-cell reservoir in vitro a diminished or absent number of EBNA-1- and VCA-antibody secreting cells was found in up to 76% of patients. Moreover, the ex vivo EBV-induced secretion of TNF-α and IFN-γ was significantly lower in patients. Multicolor flow cytometry revealed that the frequencies of EBNA-1-specific triple TNF-α/IFN-γ/IL-2 producing CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets were significantly diminished whereas no difference could be detected for HCMV-specific T-cell responses. When comparing EBV load in blood immune cells, we found more frequently EBER-DNA but not BZLF-1 RNA in CFS patients compared to healthy controls suggesting more frequent latent replication. Taken together, our findings give evidence for a deficient EBV-specific B- and T-cell memory response in CFS patients and suggest an impaired ability to control early steps of EBV reactivation. In addition the diminished EBV response might be suitable to develop diagnostic marker in CFS.
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is an unexplained incapacitating illness that may affect up to 4 million people in the United States alone. There are no validated laboratory tests for diagnosis or management despite global efforts to find biomarkers of disease. We considered the possibility that inability to identify such biomarkers reflected variations in diagnostic criteria and laboratory methods as well as the timing of sample collection during the course of the illness. Accordingly, we leveraged two large, multicenter cohort studies of ME/CFS to assess the relationship of immune signatures with diagnosis, illness duration, and other clinical variables. Controls were frequency-matched on key variables known to affect immune status, including season of sampling and geographic site, in addition to age and sex. We report here distinct alterations in plasma immune signatures early in the course of ME/CFS relative to healthy controls that are not present in subjects with longer duration of illness . Analyses based on disease duration revealed that early ME/CFS cases had a prominent activation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as dissociation of intercytokine regulatory networks. We found a stronger correlation of cytokine alterations with illness duration than with measures of illness severity, suggesting that the immunopathology of ME/CFS is not static. These findings have critical implications for discovery of interventional strategies and early diagnosis of ME/CFS.
Abstract The full article is behind a paywall. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is an often-debilitating condition of unknown origin. There is a general consensus among CFS researchers that the symptoms seem to reflect an ongoing immune response, perhaps due to viral infection. Thus, most CFS research has focused upon trying to uncover that putative immune…
A low oxygen extraction and a high ΔQ’/ΔV’O2 were consistent with a metabolic cause for exercise intolerance in 70% of CFS patients.
CFS individuals analyzed in this study show no differences in B-cell compartment, skewed NK cells and poorly responsive T cells.
The observed immunological defaults do not provide any causative link to the illness, but could explain some of the symptoms and in particular the poor control of viral infections reported in these individuals. Some of these biomarkers may be useful for the characterization of CFS. (But you have to distinguiesh between ME, CFS ,or both).
At baseline, patients with CFS had a lower number of steps per day, digit span backward score, and urinary cortisol to creatinine ratio. They had a higher fatigue score, heart rate responsiveness, plasma norepinephrine level , and serum C-reactive protein concentration compared with healthy controls. There were no significant differences regarding blood microbiology evaluation.
Adolescent CFS is associated with enhanced sympathetic nervous activity, low-grade systemic inflammation, attenuated hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis function, cognitive impairment, and large activity reduction, but not with common microorganisms. Low-dose clonidine attenuates sympathetic outflow and systemic inflammation in CFS but has a concomitant negative effect on physical activity; thus, sympathetic and inflammatory enhancement may be compensatory mechanisms. Low-dose clonidine is not clinically useful in CFS.
Significant changes were observed in B-cell subsets, Tregs, CD4+CD73+CD39+ T cells, cytotoxic activity, granzyme B, neutrophil antigens, TNF-α and IFN-γ in the CFS/ME patients in comparison with the non-fatigued controls. Alterations in B cells, Tregs, NK cells and neutrophils suggest significant impairments in immune regulation in CFS/ME and these may have similarities to a number of autoimmune disorders.
Abstract Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME, also called Chronic Fatigue Syndrome), a common disease with chronic fatigability, cognitive dysfunction and myalgia of unknown etiology, often starts with an infection. The chaperonin human heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) occurs in mitochondria and in bacteria, is highly conserved, antigenic and a major autoantigen. The anti-HSP60 humoral (IgG and IgM)…